NS-1: Network segmentation is a complex topic and strategies will vary depending on the circumstances of a given scenario. It may be appropriate to segment a network based on access profiles. For example, a database server that requires no direct user access could be placed on a network with more restrictive access controls than a web server that requires direct user access. It may also be appropriate to segment a network based on the type of data residing on that network. For example, a collection of servers that store Restricted data could be placed on a network with more restrictive controls than a collection of servers that store Public data. Available financial resources will also likely play a role in the decision making process. NS-7: Integrity related security controls should be implemented to protect Institutional Data from unauthorized modification during transmission over a network. Message signing is one of the more common methods of ensuring the integrity of a data transmission. Message signing often goes hand-in-hand with encryption controls. For example, both the Transport Layer Security ("TLS") protocol and the IP Security ("IPSec") protocol offer messaging signing and encryption. NS-9: Network devices should be configured to protect against denial of service, eavesdropping, impersonation and other network based attacks. ARP spoofing and MAC flooding are two examples of such attacks. Network devices can be configured in a variety of ways to protect against these attacks. For example, on a Cisco network device, DHCP snooping and dynamic ARP inspection can be configured to help prevent ARP spoofing attacks and port security can be enabled to help prevent MAC flooding. 10 Cyber Security Tips for Small Business Broadband and information technology are powerful factors in small businesses reaching new markets and increasing productivity and efficiency. However, businesses need a cybersecurity strategy to protect their own business, their customers, and their data from growing cybersecurity threats. 1. Train employees in security principles Establish basic security practices and policies for employees, such as requiring strong passwords, and establish appropriate Internet use guidelines that detail penalties for violating company cybersecurity policies. Establish rules of behavior describing how to handle and protect customer information and other vital data. 2. Protect information, computers, and networks from cyber attacks Keep clean machines: having the latest security software, web browser, and operating system are the best defenses against viruses, malware, and other online threats. Set antivirus software to run a scan after each update. Install other key software updates as soon as they are available. 3. Provide firewall security for your Internet connection A firewall is a set of related programs that prevent outsiders from accessing data on a private network. Make sure the operating system's firewall is enabled or install free firewall software available online. If employees work from home, ensure that their home system(s) are protected by a firewall. 4. Create a mobile device action plan Mobile devices can create significant security and management challenges, especially if they hold confidential information or can access the corporate network. Require users to password-protect their devices, encrypt their data, and install security apps to prevent criminals from stealing information while the phone is on public networks. Be sure to set reporting procedures for lost or stolen equipment. 5. Make backup copies of important business data and information Regularly backup the data on all computers. Critical data includes word processing documents, electronic spreadsheets, databases, financial files, human resources files, and accounts receivable/payable files. Backup data automatically if possible, or at least weekly and store the copies either offsite or in the cloud. 6. Control physical access to your computers and create user accounts for each employee Prevent access or use of business computers by unauthorized individuals. Laptops can be particularly easy targets for theft or can be lost, so lock them up when unattended. Make sure a separate user account is created for each employee and require strong passwords. Administrative privileges should only be given to trusted IT staff and key personnel. 7. Secure your Wi-Fi networks If you have a Wi-Fi network for your workplace, make sure it is secure, encrypted, and hidden. To hide your Wi-Fi network, set up your wireless access point or router, so it does not broadcast the network name, known as the Service Set Identifier (SSID). Password protect access to the router. 8. Employ best practices on payment cards Work with banks or processors to ensure the most trusted and validated tools and anti-fraud services are being used. You may also have additional security obligations pursuant to agreements with your bank or processor. Isolate payment systems from other, less secure programs and don't use the same computer to process payments and surf the Internet. 9. Limit employee access to data and information, limit authority to install software Do not provide any one employee with access to all data systems. Employees should only be given access to the specific data systems that they need for their jobs, and should not be able to install any software without permission. 10. Passwords and authentication Require employees to use unique passwords and change passwords every three months. Consider implementing multi-factor authentication that requires additional information beyond a password to gain entry. Check with your vendors that handle sensitive data, especially financial institutions, to see if they offer multi-factor authentication for your account.